January Transgenic mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and cows have already been created. A natural protein produced in the milk of transgenic cows like this one kills the bacteria that cause animal mastitis.
He explains that the most critical difference between natural and GM breeding is that natural breeding crosses only organisms that are already closely related—two varieties of corn, for example—whereas, in contrast, GM breeding slaps together genes from up to 15 wildly different sources.
To make a GM plant, scientists need to isolate DNA from different organisms—bacteria, viruses, plants, and sometimes animals or humans if the target gene is a human gene. They then recombine these genes biochemically in the lab to make a "gene construct," which can consist of DNA from five to fifteen different sources.
This gene construct is cloned in bacteria to make lots of copies, which are then isolated. Next, the copies are shot into embryonic plant tissue microprojectile bombardmentor moved into plant tissue via a particular bacterium Agrobacterium that acts as a vector.
After getting the construct copies into the embryonic plant tissue, whole plants are regenerated. Only a few plants out of many hundreds will turn out to grow normally and exhibit the desired trait—such as herbicide resistance. The difference is pretty large. In regular cross pollination, the species being crossed have to be related.
But with GMOs, you can take any gene from any species and splice it into a crop. So you get fish genes in tomatoes or the like. Many food safety activists are, like Holdrege and Mendelson, concerned about the effects these six major GM crops will have on ecosystems, on agricultural production, and on our bodies.
Genetic modification has certainly upped agricultural output, which is a plus when food prices are high and many parts of the world are experiencing or are at risk for famine. Story by Tobin Hack. This article appeared in "Plenty" in October Selective Breeding vs. Transgenesis Intro: The following report is going to compare two different types of human manipulation; selective breeding and transgenesis and the biological implications of each.
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Put it this way: If traditional selective breeding is like two people with two different sets of genes being paired up by a matchmaker who thinks they’ll have pretty, healthy kids together, then. Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.
Hybrids have been produced either between different varieties of the same species (e.g. between non-flowering potato plants and .
A quick way to find out more about selective breeding and transgenesis is to do an internet search but remember to think critically about which websites you use. For example, the Epic Databases website is probably more reliable than Wikipedia.
Most plant scientists view transgenesis — moving genes between unrelated organisms —as just another step in the 10,year history of evolution and human-guided plant breeding. Nature does it naturally.