Low birth weight and preterm babies essay

The Microsystem The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in.

Low birth weight and preterm babies essay

Cause and effect essay on smoking Causes and Effects of Smoking Smoking is considered as one of the most dangerous habits of an individual, especially for women and children eventually leading to several complications and causing grave health problems.

There are numerous harmful as well as dangerous effects related with smoking. Carbon monoxide and nicotine in cigarette smoking has been related with several adverse impacts on lungs and heart.

For example, in pregnant women it can eventually result in grave outcomes including; low birth weight babies, preterm delivery; premature rupture of membranes, placental abnormalities, and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. It is pertinent to mention that smoking causes vascular diseases that in turns affect flow of blood through the placenta.

Smokers, in fact, look older than they actually are because the blood vessels are partially obstructed and calcified. The complications resulting from placental abruption are more common in smokers. As mentioned above, smoking cigarette includes carbon monoxide.

Since carbon monoxide is the replacement for oxygen in the blood during smoking, there are some fetuses that could attempt to compensate for this particular deprivation by creating extra red blood cells for the purpose of carrying extra oxygen.

In some extraordinary cases, the blood gets thicker from the proliferation of such cells and ultimately cuts off the supply of blood to critical organs with fatal results. Smoking causes a person's heart to run in overdrive and ultimately there is a shortage of oxygen in heart.

Heart then has to work more for maintaining supply to the entire human body. The blood vessels are narrowed causing high blood pressure. Moreover, smoking impacts the cardiovascular system of human beings which also becomes a cause of high blood pressure or hypertension.

The effect of high blood pressure is heart related diseases. Cigarettes contain tobacco which, in turn, possesses nicotine and different other toxic chemicals. These chemicals cause blood vessel to be narrower than normal.

When blood passes through these narrow vessels it creates extra pressure and results in hypertension having some serious effects on human body including heart strokes and paralysis. Cigarettes causes deterioration in quality of blood and increases cholesterol level, at times, also creates clots in the heart.

The effect of increased level of cholesterol and creation of clots in blood is also heart attack as well as impacting other parts of body. The combination of carbon monoxide and nicotine especially in cigarettes causes increase heart rate and strained heart blood vessels. It cuts off supply of oxygen to other parts of human body including hands and feet, and limbs.

These causes have grave effects on entire human body and increase chances of death. In fact, hundreds of thousands of people die every year, around the world, due to smoking.

Low birth weight and preterm babies essay

Smoking is considered as a slow way of death. For example, it causes emphysema that slowly but continuously effects lungs.

Low birth weight and preterm babies essay

The effect of emphysema is repeated attacks of bronchitis, lung-diseases and heart failure. Nicotine in blood causes shortage of oxygen in the human body which, in turn, exerts pressure on heart.

Moreover, it blocks the arteries and causes damage to the blood vessels.

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The damage effects flow of blood and increase blood pressure. Chemicals present in tobacco causes damage to the lining of blood vessels that effects fats level and increase the risk of atheroma being a major cause of heart diseases. Smoking during Pregnancy Smoking limits, unfortunately, restricts the overall nutrition that a newly-born baby is able to receive.

This can be specifically detrimental in late pregnancy when the brain of baby is swiftly developing. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nicotine has a direct adverse effect on developing nerve cells.

Small doses, in animals, of nicotine injected into the mother in pregnancy normally result in brain malformations, learning problems, and poor functioning. Studies have revealed the fact that women exposed to nicotine in pregnancy are more likely to show behavioral and learning problems years later.

Babies born too small or prematurely for their gestational age may end up confronting learning problems their entire lives.There is growing recognition of the role of diet and other environmental factors in modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota, which in turn can impact health.

This narrative review explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to provide a general. Survival rate. Some infants born in the late preterm period are physiologically and developmentally immature when compared to full-term infants and are at higher risks of sickness and death.

Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per live plombier-nemours.com under-five mortality rate is also an important statistic, considering the infant mortality rate focuses only on children under one year of age.

Preterm births was defined as birth before 37 weeks gestation), small for gestational age as a birthweight below the population specific 10 th centile for the gestational age (or birth weight z-score less than for a given GA using a modeled BW/relationship as described below). Essay discusses cause and effects of smoking.

Infant mortality - Wikipedia

Causes and Effects of Smoking. Smoking is considered as one of the most dangerous habits of an individual, especially for women and children eventually leading to several complications and causing grave health problems. Essay: Preterm and low-birth weight infants Introduction Through advances in neonatal medicine the worldwide prevalence of preterm and low-birth weight infants’ increases.

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