Social Movements Causes and Effects of Poverty Any discussion of social class and mobility would be incomplete without a discussion of poverty, which is defined as the lack of the minimum food and shelter necessary for maintaining life. More specifically, this condition is known as absolute poverty.
Another way of articulating the definition of social exclusion is as follows: Social exclusion is a multidimensional process of progressive social rupture, detaching groups and individuals from social relations and institutions and preventing them from full participation in the normal, normatively prescribed activities of the society in which they live.
It is then regarded as the combined result of personal risk factors age, gender, race ; macro-societal changes demographic, economic and labor market developments, technological innovation, the evolution of social norms ; government legislation and social policy; and the actual behavior of businesses, administrative organisations and fellow citizens.
An example is the exclusion of single mothers from the welfare system prior to welfare reforms of the s. The modern welfare system is based on the concept of entitlement to the basic means of being a productive member of society both as an organic function of society and as compensation for the socially useful labor provided.
In some career contexts, caring work is devalued and motherhood is seen as a barrier to employment. Today the marginalization is primarily a function of class condition.
Moosa-Mitha discusses the Western feminist movement as a direct reaction to the marginalization of white women in society. Feminists argued that men and women should equally participate in the labor force, in the public and private sector, and in the home.
They also focused on labor laws to increase access to employment as well as to recognize child-rearing as a valuable form of labor. In some places today, women are still marginalized from executive positions and continue to earn less than men in upper management positions.
The Yogyakarta Principles require that the states and communities abolish any stereotypes about LGBT people as well as stereotyped gender roles. Each develops its own sentiments, attitudes, codes, even its own words, which are at best only partially intelligible to others.
One example is the Aboriginal community in Australia. Marginalization of Aboriginal communities is a product of colonization. As a result of colonialismAboriginal communities lost their land, were forced into destitute areas, lost their sources of livelihood, and were excluded from the labor market.
Additionally, Aboriginal communities lost their culture and values through forced assimilation and lost their rights in society. Major contributors include race, income, employment status, social class, geographic location, personal habits and appearance, education, religion and political affiliation.
Similarly, increasing use of information technology and company outsourcing have contributed to job insecurity and a widening gap between the rich and the poor.
Companies are outsourcing, jobs are lost, the cost of living continues to rise, and land is being expropriated by large companies.
Material goods are made in large abundances and sold at cheaper costs, while in India for example, the poverty line is lowered in order to mask the number of individuals who are actually living in poverty as a result of globalization.
Globalization and structural forces aggravate poverty and continue to push individuals to the margins of society, while governments and large corporations do not address the issues George, P, SK, lecture, October 9, Certain language and the meaning attached to language can cause universalizing discourses that are influenced by the Western world, which is what Sewpaul describes as the "potential to dilute or even annihilate local cultures and traditions and to deny context specific realities" p.
What Sewpaul is implying is that the effect of dominant global discourses can cause individual and cultural displacement, as well as an experience of "de-localization", as individual notions of security and safety are jeopardized p.
Insecurity and fear of an unknown future and instability can result in displacement, exclusion, and forced assimilation into the dominant group. For many, it further pushes them to the margins of society or enlists new members to the outskirts because of global-capitalism and dominant discourses Sewpaul, With the prevailing notion of globalization, we now see the rise of immigration as the world gets smaller and smaller with millions of individuals relocating each year.
This is not without hardship and struggle of what a newcomer thought was going to be a new life with new opportunities. With this comes a denial of access to public housinghealth care benefits, employment support services, and social security benefits Ferguson et al.
Newcomers are seen as undeserving, or that they must prove their entitlement in order to gain access to basic support necessities. It is clear that individuals are exploited and marginalized within the country they have emigrated Ferguson et al.
Welfare states and social policies can also exclude individuals from basic necessities and support programs. Welfare payments were proposed to assist individuals in accessing a small amount of material wealth Young, Young further discusses how "the provision of the welfare itself produces new injustice by depriving those dependent on it of rights and freedoms that others have…marginalization is unjust because it blocks the opportunity to exercise capacities in socially defined and recognized way" p.
There is the notion that by providing a minimal amount of welfare support, an individual will be free from marginalization. In fact, welfare support programs further lead to injustices by restricting certain behaviour, as well the individual is mandated to other agencies.Poverty is a social issue that has caused problems for people and communities for thousands of years.
This social problem has various effects on different institutions and people. As a whole, Africa is one of the most economically affected continents on the planet. Indeed, no social phenomenon is as comprehensive in its assault on human rights as poverty.
Poverty erodes or nullifies economic and social rights such as the right to health, adequate housing, food and safe water, and the right to education. Causes of poverty Poverty is an exceptionally complicated social phenomenon, and trying to discover its causes is equally complicated.
The stereotypic (and simplistic) explanation persists—that the poor cause their own poverty—based on the notion that anything is possible in America. Running head: Poverty and Academic Performance 1 Introduction Poverty is a global issue that limits the development of humanity.
However, poverty is a social phenomenon whose definition is complex and multidimensional. Poverty is a serious social issue in the society today. According to Peilin (), poverty brings hardships to families and individuals as well as political thereby negatively affecting the social stability and social development and .
In the end, poverty is a major cause of social tensions and threatens to divide a nation because of the issue of inequalities, in particular income inequality. This happens when wealth in a country is poorly distributed among its citizens.