Two main British armies were captured at Saratoga in and Yorktown inleading to peace with the Treaty of Paris inwith the recognition of the United States as an independent nation bounded by British Canada on the north, Spanish Florida on the south, and the Mississippi River on the west. Origins Taxation without representation Before the revolution: In addition to the thirteen colonies, sixteen smaller colonies were ruled directly by royal governors. Inthe colonists still considered themselves loyal subjects of the British Crown, with the same historic rights and obligations as subjects in Britain.
The family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. A New England town meeting is a form of local government with elected officials, and not just a gathering of citizens; according to historian William Fowlerit was "the most democratic institution in the British empire".
His parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams gradually shifted his interest to politics. In his thesis, he argued that it was "lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved", which indicated that his political views, like his father's, were oriented towards colonial rights.
InMassachusetts was facing a serious currency shortage, and Deacon Adams and the Boston Caucus created a "land bank" which issued paper money to borrowers who mortgaged their land as security.
Opposition to the land bank came from the more aristocratic "court party", who were supporters of the royal governor and controlled the Governor's Councilthe upper chamber of the General Court. Lawsuits over the bank persisted for years, even after Deacon Adams's death, and the younger Samuel Adams often had to defend the family estate from seizure by the government.
He considered becoming a lawyer, but instead decided to go into business. He worked at Thomas Cushing's counting housebut the job only lasted a few months because Cushing felt that Adams was too preoccupied with politics to become a good merchant.
Adams always remained, in the words of historian Pauline Maier"a man utterly uninterested in either making or possessing money".
During the crisis with Great Britain, mass meetings were held here that were too large for Faneuil Hall. Several generations of Adamses were maltsters, who produced the malt necessary for brewing beer. Samuel born and Hannah born He was elected to his first political office inserving as one of the clerks of the Boston market.
Inthe Boston Town Meeting elected him to the post of tax collector, which provided a small income.
The town meeting was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Adams was compelled to file suit against delinquent taxpayers, but many taxes went uncollected.
Adams's friends paid off some of the deficit, and the town meeting wrote off the remainder. By then, he had emerged as a leader of the popular party, and the embarrassing situation did not lessen his influence.
The British Parliament found itself deep in debt and looking for new sources of revenue, and they sought to directly tax the colonies of British America for the first time. Colonists were not represented in Parliament, he argued, and therefore they could not be taxed by that body; the colonists were represented by the colonial assemblies, and only they could levy taxes upon them.
As was customary, the town meeting provided the representatives with a set of written instructions, which Adams was selected to write. Adams highlighted what he perceived to be the dangers of taxation without representation: For if our Trade may be taxed, why not our Lands?
It strikes at our British privileges, which as we have never forfeited them, we hold in common with our Fellow Subjects who are Natives of Britain.
If Taxes are laid upon us in any shape without our having a legal Representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the Character of free Subjects to the miserable State of tributary Slaves?
Alexander, "it became the first political body in America to go on record stating Parliament could not constitutionally tax the colonists. The directives also contained the first official recommendation that the colonies present a unified defense of their rights.
He supported calls for a boycott of British goods to put pressure on Parliament to repeal the tax. Adams was friendly with the Loyal Nine but was not a member. On August 26, lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson's home was destroyed by an angry crowd.
Anne WhitneySamuel Adamsbronze and granite statue,located in front of Faneuil Hallwhich was the home of the Boston Town Meeting   Officials such as Governor Francis Bernard believed that common people acted only under the direction of agitators and blamed the violence on Adams.
Miller wrote in in what became the standard biography of Adams  that Adams "controlled" Boston with his "trained mob".Oct 29, · American Revolution: American Revolution (–83), insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America.
The war followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and many North American colonists.
The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the eighteenth century in which the Thirteen Colonies that became the United States of America gained independence from the British Empire..
In this period, the colonies rebelled against Britain and entered into the American Revolutionary War, also referred to (especially in Britain) as the American War of Independence. The American Revolution was a time when the British colonists in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain.
There were many battles fought and the colonies gained their freedom and became the independent country of the United States. Learn more about Thomas Jefferson, draftsman of the U.S.
Declaration of Independence and the nation's third president, on plombier-nemours.com John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] – July 4, ) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, who served as the first Vice President (–) and as the second President of the United States (–).
He was a lawyer, diplomat, and leader of American independence from Great plombier-nemours.com was a dedicated diarist, and correspondent with his wife and advisor.
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